Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan <p>Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan (PJWS) is an academic bi-annual journal of the Pakistan Association for Women’s Studies (PAWS). PJWS was first published in 1994. As a refereed international interdisciplinary, PJWS aims at disseminating and sharing women’s studies research and feminist scholarship globally. The Journal publishes articles relating to scholarship in the field of Women’s Studies and feminist knowledge. The editorial board welcomes a variety of contributions that focus on women’s experience, gender issues, and feminist theory and consciousness. We publish academic/creative writing, and reports from the activists, that are critical, scholarly, and offer fresh perspectives on issues faced by civil society.</p> <p>The second part of our name, i.e., Alam-e-Niswan (an Arabic-Farsi phrase) means women’s world and shows our commitment to remain constantly engaged in dialogue with women globally and not to remain restricted either by political disputes or by geographical boundaries. Over the years, the Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies has not only remained committed to its goal of generating and disseminating interdisciplinary scholarship but it has also participated in global conversations and has made alliances with similar journals world-wide.</p> Pakistan Association for Women's Studies en-US Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan 1024-1256 From Pari Khanas to Lal Bazaars and Further Away: Female Performers in Nineteenth Century Awadh <p>While there are a lot of contestations over the identity and subjectivity of women performers and entertainers of Awadh, three terms denote the most popular representations of these women in the nineteenth century. These are: the trained and sophisticated <em>tawa</em><em>ʾif</em> of the Nawabi court, the vulgar and titillating ‘<em>nautch</em>’ girls of the city and the ill-mannered and promiscuous “prostitute” of the British cantonment. For long, these terms have been used to weave a linear narrative about the courtesan’s eventual fall from grace, which does not take into account the politics behind these categorisations nor women’s participation therein. This paper focuses instead, on the making and unmaking of these ontological categories to argue that, while these categories are neither exhaustive nor holistic, they are reflective of the institutions wherein they flourished, the cultural specificities of their existence and the peculiarities of their labour practices. An analysis of these dynamics shall present a more detailed and genealogical history of how women inhabited, embodied, extended and/or negotiated with power structures. This holds the utmost importance in the context of contemporary reminiscence of Lucknow’s past, which, while being marked by a celebration of the courtesan culture, is often accompanied by erasure of their lived experiences, presenting unidimensional imagery that is both unhistorical and ahistorical.&nbsp;</p> Tanya Burman Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 28 1 01 20 10.46521/pjws.028.01.0085 Female Leadership in the Local Governments: Reconstruction of Traditional Gender Identity of Women in Rural Bangladesh <p>The local government bodies of Bangladesh have always been dominated and controlled by men––the traditional power holders. Bangladeshi rural women are mostly confined to household chores and engaged in subsistence agricultural activities due to the patriarchal social system and a rigid gender division of labour. Moreover, women’s lives are controlled by cultural and religious gender norms which limit their mobility in public spaces and political participation. Hence, women’s participation in local government has always been a symbol of tokenism up until the introduction of a direct election system for women. Given this context, this study explores how Bangladeshi rural women have proved themselves to be the change-makers in the rural society and what influencing factors supported them in reconstructing their traditional gender identities despite social and structural constraints. The study was conducted through a qualitative inquiry by adopting a case study approach. Data and information for the study were collected through 12 in-depth (IDI) interviews of elected female Union Parishads (lowest local administrative unit) (UP) chairpersons, UP members and Upazila (subdistrict local administration council) female vice chairpersons along with four focus group discussions and five key informant interviews from four selected districts of Bangladesh. This study concluded that these female leaders are enormously motivated and committed to reshaping their traditional gender identity and altering unequal gender power relations that predominantly factor in the rural social fabric of Bangladesh.</p> Mumita Tanjeela Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 28 1 21 39 10.46521/pjws.028.01.0086 Depicting Women Through Transitivity Choices: A Comparative Analysis <p>The study aims at depicting how male and female authors portray female characters and how their core ideologies and social influences affect these depictions. This study is based on the feminist stylistic approach, proposed by Sara Mills (1995), embedded with the literary theory of feminism. It is an overlapping field that has its roots in critical discourse analysis. This stance is significant as it allows to critically look at the substance to uncover the ideology related to women. From a feminist stylistic perspective, the notion of presenting the distorted image of the female entity is associated with male authors leading to the point that female authors portray female characters positively as compared to their male counterparts. By employing Halliday’s transitivity framework (2004) in Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as an analytic tool, the utterances of the female protagonists from both the novels: The <em>Blithedale Romance</em> by Nathaniel Hawthorne and <em>Jane Eyre</em> by Charlotte Bronte, have been analysed into the process, participants and circumstances. Social influence, mostly in the form of male domination, on ideologies and linguistic choices in the depiction of women in both the writers’ work has been found on almost equal grounds.</p> Tazanfal Tehseem Humera Iqbal Saba Zulfiqar Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 28 1 41 59 10.46521/pjws.028.01.0087 Cognitive Mapping of Migrants’ Identity in Mohja Kahf’s: The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf <p>My article investigates the experience of migration from the Middle East to America in Mohja Kahf’s novel, <em>The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf</em>. To understand the narrative of the world of migrants, it would be helpful to perform a cognitive cartographic analysis. Kahf performs a form of social and psychic cartography by exploring migrants’ space through the character of the coming-of-age girl, Khadra, by situating the turning points in her character at certain places. I classify these places into three types: space of conflict, space of illumination and space of reconciliation. The text can be read as a map of the represented transatlantic space(s). However, this map shows particular locations in which Khadra is involved. Khadra’s character develops through her physical interaction with certain geographical, urban and cultural spaces. Hence, this text emphasises the role of literature in the process which Fredric Jameson terms “cognitive mapping” and provides an understanding of the experience of migration. Since space in the context of Kahf’s narrative is a mental, cartographic construct as it is being explored and grappled with all the time, I employ a geocritical approach in my analysis of the book.</p> Kawthar Yasser Al Othman Copyright (c) 2021 2021-07-30 2021-07-30 28 1 73 91 10.46521/pjws.028.01.0088