Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan <p>Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan is a refereed interdisciplinary journal which aims at disseminating and sharing women’s studies research and feminist scholarship globally. The Journal publishes articles relating to scholarship in the field of Women’s Studies and feminist knowledge. The editorial board welcomes a variety of contributions that focus on women’s experience, gender issues, and feminist theory and consciousness. We publish academic/creative writing, artwork, reports from the activist, that are critical, scholarly, and offer fresh perspectives on issues faced by a civil society.<br /><br /><strong>Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies</strong> is the journal of Pakistan Association for Women’s Studies.<br /><br />This journal is published twice a year, in June and December. These two issues constitute one volume.<br /><br />Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies wishes not just to document women’s experiences locally but globally so that women collectively could work for peace, justice and equity. It is an interdisciplinary journal which aims at disseminating and sharing women’s studies research and feminist scholarship globally.<br /><br /></p> <p><strong>Major Objectives of Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies are:</strong></p> <ul> <li>To create, strengthen and disseminate information and knowledge about and for women globally.</li> <li>To establish a network between women, researchers, lobbyists, and policy planners.<br />To act as a catalyst in society at large and to bring about the empowerment of women and hence the transformation of the society.</li> <li>To critique and reassess the process of gaining and disseminating knowledge.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies publishes:<br /></strong></p> <ul> <li>Interdisciplinary research in the field of Women’s Studies.</li> <li>Conceptual and analytical writings on themes related to women’s status and role.</li> <li>Research on curricula, course outlines, reading lists, and teaching strategies related to the discipline of Women’s Studies.</li> <li>Reviews of books, films and theatrical performances.</li> <li>Reports on national and international conferences, symposia and workshops on Women’s Studies and Feminist pedagogy.</li> <li>Creative work, particularly poems, short stories and art.</li> <li>PJWS welcomes submissions of autobiographical notes from women who have a story to share with us.</li> <li>Work reports of activists and grass-root development workers are welcome.</li> </ul> <p>Articles published in PJWS do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher and of the Editor or the Editorial Board. Authors alone are responsible for the opinions expressed and for the accuracy of the data contained in their articles.</p> en-US (Dr. Tahera Aftab) (EScience Press) Tue, 07 Jul 2020 17:06:23 +0000 OJS 60 Subverting Patriarchy through Écriture Feminine in Fawzia Afzal-Khan’s Lahore with Love: Growing Up with Girlfriends, Pakistani Style <p>This research paper explores linguistic techniques employed by Fawzia Afzal-Khan in her memoir <em>Lahore with Love: Growing up with Girlfriends, Pakistani Style </em>(LWL) to challenge patriarchal norms and structures. The theoretical frameworks used for this research are drawn from structural linguistics including the works of Mills (1995), Spender (1980), as well as French Poststructuralists: Cixous (1975) and Irigaray (1985). Through analysis of the linguistic features of her narrative such as tropes, metaphors, imagery, wordplay, polyphony, genre-mixing, and code-mixing, the paper strives to illustrate the alternative writing style of the memoirist.&nbsp; The objective is to reveal that her linguistic and stylistic methods differ from the dominant structural and patriarchal writing styles, and mark her feminine individuality expressed thematically and stylistically in her memoir. The significance of our approach is that our analysis of her narrative is informed by a combination of the literary insights of the French feminists along with the ideas gained from the discipline of feminist linguistics and feminist stylistics. We hope that this paper goes some way in filling the research gap in the domain of Pakistani women’s memoir-writing: an emerging arena of literary studies which is ignored and dismissed both in its literary merit and political significance.&nbsp;</p> Shirin Zubair, Rija Ahsan Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Victimization and Asymmetric Gendered Power Relations: A Linguistic Investigation of Harassment Complaints Registered in Lahore <p>This paper presents an investigation of the linguistic choices employed in harassment complaints submitted to the Punjab Commission on the Status of Women and four police stations located in Lahore during 2017-2018. In a patriarchal society such as Pakistan’s, where a woman’s honour epitomizes the whole family’s honour (Atakav 2015, 52; Sharlach 2008, 96), sexual harassment, a stigmatizing issue is hardly ever reported (Ali and Kramar 2015, 241). This paper, using Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis’s (Lazar, 2005, 2007) theoretical perspective of asymmetrical gendered power relations mirrored in harassment complaints, explores the form and severity of harassing practices which had prompted women in Lahore to report them. In order to unwrap the complex interplay of gender and power, linguistic features of the complaints are examined through Fairclough’s text analysis (1989, 1992), the first dimension of the 3D model which explores lexical choices such as adjectives, adverbs, culturally informed metaphors and metaphorical extensions, which are embedded in grammatical structure exemplified through transitivity analysis. In this paper, harassment complaints are analysed as important documents invested with socio-cultural gender ideologies that underline the need for dismantling gender oppression to achieve social transformation.</p> Umara Shaheen, María Isabel Maldonado García Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Recovered and Restored? Abducted Women in 1947 Partition Narratives <p>During the Partition of India in 1947, communal riots triggered unspeakable acts of horror against women of rival communities. A large number of women were abducted; some were later recovered and returned to their families. The trauma suffered by these abducted women and survivors extends all proportions. This paper analyses the dislocation, pain and trauma of abducted women, as depicted in two short stories: <em>The Lost Ribbon</em> by Shobha Rao (2016) and <em>Banished </em>(1998) by Jamila Hashmi originally published in Urdu as <em>Banbas</em> (exile) in <em>Aap-Beeti, Jag-Beeti</em> (1969). I consider the abducted women’s plight in view of the distinction Giorgio Agamben made of <em>zoè</em> (bare life) and <em>bios</em> (political life as a citizen) in <em>Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life</em> (1998) and <em>The Use of Bodies</em> (2015). I analyse how Partition reduced women to bare life, despite offering them hopes of life as a citizen of their respective independent countries. In this regard, I discuss their sufferings and trauma due to double dislocation, first stemming from rape, abduction and captivity in the wake of communal violence, and second due to the nature of the states’ intervention in their recovery and rehabilitation.&nbsp; My analysis also shows that recovery of abducted women should not be taken as synonymous with restoration because restoration of a traumatised human being to her pre-abduction state of mind and life is not possible.</p> Saiyma Aslam Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Climate Change and Violence Against Women: Study of A Flood-Affected Population in The Rural Area of Sindh, Pakistan <p>Climate-induced gender-based violence is an emerging area of study. Although studies on women and climate change are not new, a fresh understanding of gender-based issues and related problems are becoming of greater concern now. Women in Pakistan are generally at a disadvantage due to their societally- perceived norms, roles and responsibilities. This study aims to examine the experiences of women in flood settlement camps and to identify an association between natural disasters and violence against women. For this study, with the help of qualitative research methodology, 20 women were interviewed in the flood-prone areas of Sindh. Findings show that most women experience different types of violence, physical as well as emotional, committed by partners and even by complete strangers. The rate of such violence rises when women are displaced and are in temporary shelter facilities during a post-disaster period. Committing violence under such situations results in critical implications for both women victims and the development and implementation of gender-sensitive climate change and disaster planning policies.</p> Falak Shad Memon Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Among Sexually Abused Women in Pakistan <p>The study aims to identify factors which contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug addiction among sexually abused women in an ultra-conservative society. A qualitative research design is used in conjunction with interviews from women and physicians, categories which included both psychiatrists and sexologists, across six districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The phenomena of drug addiction and alcoholism were more pronounced in victims working for the commercial sex sector. The findings suggest Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) as a driving factor of alcoholism and drug abuse, which in turn cascades into secondary and tertiary levels of trauma. Sexual victimization and re-victimization, familial rejection, stigmatisation and social degradation were contributing factors to relentless stress. Drugs in vogue among victims were Valium-two (Diazepam) and Lexotanil that contained Bromazepam. Hashish and alcohol were consumed sparingly by victims, while the use of cocaine and heroin was absent due to severe masculine perceptions and addiction. The study contributes to a better understanding of a socially-excluded, economically-disadvantaged and stigmatised group by taking a pro-feminist stance to advocate for the rights of victims.</p> Sheraz Ali, Muhammad Tariq Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Guru-chela Relationship in Khwajasira Culture of Pakistan: Uncovering the Dynamics of Power and Hegemony Within <p><em>The khwajasira </em>community in Pakistan for the last few years has been actively pursuing a struggle to achieve their fundamental rights. With the promulgation of the Transgender Person’s Act of 2018, Pakistan has become among the few countries in the world considered to be extremely progressive in protecting the rights of these individuals. While praise and acclaim are levelled toward their struggle with problems and issues associated with the outside world (social world), there has been little if any work produced on their particular culture especially the dynamics of the <em>guru-chela</em> relationship in Pakistan. The <em>khwajasira</em> community’s existence in Pakistan, with its specific culture, predates the creation of the nation. Over a period of time, transformation and change have taken place within this community. While some of the traditions remained intact, others faced fundamental changes. The <em>guru-chela</em> relationship is considered to be the core/foundational aspect of <em>khwajasira</em> culture and community in Pakistan. The dominant discourse in Pakistan is that the transgender community is marginalized and discriminated against by society at large; however, there has been a scarcity of work that critically question the “internal world” of the transgender community in Pakistan. In this regard, this article aims to unearth some of the dynamics of their living world. Based on semi-structured interviews conducted with 20individuals (17<em>chelas</em> and 3 <em>gurus</em>) residing in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, this article argues that transgender activism (for their rights) is entirely an engagement with the “outer world”, while within their own particular communities/groups the existence of discrimination, violation of rights and even violence are largely overlooked or have never been talked about, especially within the <em>guru-chela</em> relationship. It is revealed through this research that within the <em>khwajasira</em> community, especially with respect to the <em>guru-chela</em> relationship, there exist unchallenged/unrequited power and hegemony. This relationship, hierarchal in nature, not only gives rise to discrimination and violation of human rights, but also perpetuates violence on a day-to-day basis.</p> Saad Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Maternal Transferability of Trauma and Psychosomatic Nation in Sorayya Khan’s Noor <p>Ignored or less voiced representation of victimized mothers may appear in the form of certain explicit psychological reactions within generations. Maternal trauma may seep through generations resulting in a psychologically paralyzed nation. The main concern of this paper is to study Sorayya Khan’s novel <em>Noor</em> to unearth treachery and to unfold unspoken traumas (PTSD) inflicted specifically upon mothers during violent incidents. Mothers have always been the carriers of distortion, loss, violence, abuse and acute callousness, transmitting confused and anxious situations to the next generation. Sorayya Khan’s first novel, <em>Noor, </em>addresses such violence and prejudice, thereby reflecting how such intense traumatic experiences actuate the suffering of mothers. This epic piece of art brings forth the hushed voices of both mothers and children who are marginalized, forgotten, oppressed, traumatized, subjected to dislocation and exposed to violence and sexual assault against the backdrop of war. This research tends to unveil the ways in which mothers have been subjected to trauma to cripple the sound psychological foundations of the community/nation. The main purpose of this essay is to address certain essential questions such as: what in fact trauma is, how war affects the life patterns of society, how the trauma inflicted upon women (Mothers) becomes an irresolvable disorder, how trauma can act as a catalyst for the disruption of all sectors of the society, and finally how inherited trauma gives birth to a traumatized nation. The focal point of this research is to examine and explore the issues faced by the fallen ones (Mothers) during times of war and how these issues become precursors for the future lives of the characters, thereby resulting in a hollow nation.</p> Hamza Rauf Awan, Fatima Syeda Copyright (c) 2020 Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan Tue, 07 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000